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Abstract - TER and HAVER - auxiliary verbs of compound tenses the past participle and its direct object - from 13th century till the first half of the 14th century -

The verbs TER and HAVER, as auxiliary verbs of compound tenses, already presented an evolution in the Middle Ages, more precisely since the first half of the 14th century. Actually, while the verb HAVER is the main auxiliary verb used in CANTIGAS D’AMIGO, which is an exception for the verb TER in the verse “ou o fez ou já o feito ten”, repeated three times in the refrain of song CCLXXXIV, in PORTVGALIAE MONVMENTA HISTORICA, the verb TER already has an identical function in 17 situations, that is to say in 35% of  these auxiliary verbs.

If the evolution of the verb TER and the consequent regression of HAVER as auxiliary verbs are evidents in the study of these two literary pieces, the same make it possible to find the first signs of the transformation of the agreement to the invariability of the past participle with its direct object. Indeed, while in CANTIGAS D’AMIGO all the past participles agree with the direct object in gender and number, in PORTVGALIAE MONVMENTA HISTORICA, more precisely in LIVRO DE LINHAGENS DO CONDE D. PEDRO, there is a situation with the past participle of the auxiliary verb HAVER, which is invariable towards the feminine direct object. There is also invariability of the participle with the auxiliary verb TER in two occurences which also have a feminine direct object. These first signs of the invariability of the past participle in the Portuguese Language occur in the syntactic construction Auxiliary Verb (A) + Past Participle (P.P.) + Direct Object (D.O.), that is to say it is when the direct object is used after the past participle that the first “transgressions” to the rule of the time happen.

Throug these two literary pieces we can also find the varied syntactic construction – D.O. + A + P.P.;   A + D.O. + P.P.;   A + P.P. + D.O.;   D.O. + P.P. + A;   P.P. + A + D.O.;   D.O. + P.P. + A + D. O. – which occurred in the Portuguese Language in the 13th and 14th centuries..

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